Pyrethroids as Promising Marine Antifoulants: Laboratory and Field Studies
【英文摘要】Due to the regulations and bans regarding the use of traditional toxic chemicals against marine fouling organisms and the practical impediments to the commercialization of natural product antifoulants, there is an urgent need for compounds that are antifouling-active, environmentally friendly, and have a potential for commercial application. In this study, a series of common, commercially available pyrethroid products, which are generally used as environmentally safe insecticides, was evaluated for antifouling activity in the laboratory using an anti-settlement test with cyprids of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus and also in a field experiment. Laboratory assay showed that all eleven pyrethroids (namely, rich d-trans-allethrin, Es-biothrin, rich d-prallethrin, S-prallethrin, tetramethrin, rich d-tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyphenothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, and high active cypermethrin) were able to inhibit barnacle settlement (EC50 range of 0.0316 to 87.00 μg/ml) without significant toxicity. Analysis of structure–activity relationships suggested that the cyano group at the α-carbon position had a significant influence on the expression of antifouling activity in pyrethroids. In the field, the antifouling activity of pyrethroids was further confirmed, with the most potent pyrethroids being cypermethrin and high active cypermethrin, which displayed efficiency comparable with that of tributyltin. In summary, our investigation indicated that these pyrethroids have a great and practical commercial potential as antifouling agents.