Constructions of Noble Metal Nanocrystals with Specific Crystal Facets and High Surface Area
- 2018年第24卷 
贵金属纳米晶在电催化等领域具有广泛应用. 其催化活性往往与纳米晶体的表面结构直接相关，而催化剂的贵金属原子利用率与比表面积密切相关. 因小尺寸纳米晶难以保留特定的晶面，而具有特定表面的纳米晶通常结晶成尺寸较大、比表面积比较小的晶体，调控纳米晶的尺寸和表面结构两种策略似乎相互矛盾. 如何可控合成同时具有特定表面结构和大比表面积的贵金属纳米晶具有重要的意义. 本综述从形貌调控角度详细介绍提高贵金属纳米晶原子利用率的方法策略；总结调控单贵金属及其合金同时具有特定晶面和大比表面积的研究现状；最后，对纳米晶的形貌调控领域未来的发展趋势提出展望.Noble metal nanocrystals (NCs) have widespread applications in catalysis. Their catalytic performances are strongly related to the surface structures while the atomic utilization efficiency of noble metal is considerably correlated with the surface area. Thus, advantages of both specific surface structure and large surface area are highly required to show off simultaneously so as to optimize the catalytic performance and decrease the usage of noble metal. However, it seems that the two advantages are incompatible with each other in one NC since it is difficult for small NCs to keep their specific facets, while NCs with specific surface structure usually crystallize into the large size leading to small surface area. The construction of noble metal NCs with specific surface area and large surface area is a great challenge. This review introduces the strategies to prepare noble metal NCs integrated with both specific surface facets and high surface area from the controllable synthesis of morphologies. The current researches in this field are summarized by introducing specific cases. Subsequently, typical applications in catalysis are presented to demonstrate the advantages of noble metal NCs with both specific facets and high surface area. Finally, the perspectives concerning about the development tendency in this field are put forward.