Preparation of Nanoprobes and Their Possible Applications in Nanoscale Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for Studying Electrocatalytic Oxygen and Hydrogen Reactions
- 2018年第24卷 
扫描电化学显微镜是一种在检测样品表面物理形貌的同时能提供丰富的电化学信息的扫描探针技术，由于超微电极的引入，它可以高时空分辨率地探究各类样品的物理形貌和电化学性能之间的构效关系. 随着现代纳米科技的不断发展，扫描探针的尺寸也逐渐从亚微米发展到纳米级别. 与此同时，高效优选各类氧反应和氢反应电催化材料，明晰其电化学反应过程和性能是二十一世纪绿色新能源转换存储系统（如可再生燃料电池、金属空气电池等）的重要研究方向. 本文首先概括了可应用于扫描电化学显微镜的纳米级扫描探针的制备及发展，之后着重介绍了近四年纳米尺度扫描电化学显微镜在电催化氧反应和氢反应研究中的一些最新研究进展. 最后以点窥面，对未来纳米尺度扫描电化学显微镜的未来发展趋势作了展望.Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy, which can not only provide the topographical information, but also offer the electrochemical properties of different samples. The interrelationship of physical and electrochemical properties of a sample can be searched at a high-resolution scale due to the introduction of ultramicroelectrode (UME). With the continuous development of modern nanotechnology, the SECM probe has been improved with drastically decreasing its size down to nanometer. Meanwhile, to evaluate and understand the electrochemical performance of various electrocatalysts for both oxygen and hydrogen reactions with high-efficiency is highly demanded in the research area of green new energy conversion and storage systems, such as regenerative fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Therefore, this review will provide a snapshot in the preparations and developments for different types of nanoprobes of SECM. The recent advances in applications of nanoscale SECM in studies of electrocatalysts for both oxygen and hydrogen reactions are also summarized. Finally, some prospects for the future development of nanoscale SECM are discussed.