Media Criticism in Ancient China: Concept,Thought and Its Value Orientation
中国古代有着丰富的媒介批评史料和批评思想,但华夏媒介批评研究一直少人问津。可以从概念界定、批评思想、价值取向三个维度构建华夏媒介批评研究的理论框架。口语批评方面,诸子主张"慎言"、崇尚"信言"、批判"修辞";文字批评方面,史官推崇"实录",官方批判小报"伪造假传、煽惑人心";非语言批评方面,古人重视其传播效果,批判不合礼仪规范者。华夏媒介批评共通的价值取向是"仁义礼仪""诚信朴实""固国利民"。There are rich historical records and insight thoughts of media criticism in ancient China,but few scholars have studied it systematically. We can construct the theoretical framework of media criticism in ancient China from three dimensions. First,as for media criticism in speech communication,various schools of philosophers in the pre- Qin Dynasty advocated that one should "be cautious in speech","keep one's word"and never use "too much rhetoric". Secondly,as for literal communication,the historiographer praised "reality record"while the official criticized the tabloid which "deceives and stirs up people's mind". Lastly,as for non- verbal communication,the ancient Chinese people attached great importance to the effects of etiquette and criticized the people who deviated from social norms and etiquette. Thus it can be seen that media criticism in ancient China has some common value orientation like "benevolence and etiquette"," sincerity and honesty",and "benefiting the nation and the people".