Attitudes towards the three elements of controversial advertising among different generations in China
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伴随着改革开放以来的经济繁荣,广告从最初的西方舶来品逐步发生了历史的变迁。在本土化进程中,广告引发的争议性也受到不少中国学者的关注。根据代际差异理论,本文提出年龄影响受众对争议性广告态度的假设,并基于不同年龄段的受调查者青少年时期所处的社会环境与时代背景,将其大致划分为五个代群,尝试研究不同代群亚文化背景下受众的态度差异。同时,回顾以往相关文献,本文概括出有关争议性广告的三大要素:引起争议的产品种类、具有冒犯性的广告执行方式以及引发广告争议的媒介要素。研究小组问卷调查采用配额抽样的方法,共采集有效样本1053个。在对争议性广告受众态度代际差异及差异原因的探究中发现,年轻代群与年长代群对于争议性广告的态度分布基本符合Fam和Waller等学者2008年在中国调研所揭示的规律,即年长代群较为保守,而年轻代群更为开放。这一"开放——保守"的分化趋势在具有争议性的广告媒介因素(包括广告媒体形式与广告播放方式)上不显著,但在广告产品类型和广告表现方式上则非常显著。以上三个要素间的有机联系不可忽视,这种联系与代际差异共同构成了不同代群受众态度差异的原因。With the prosperity of economy since the reform and opening up, advertising has shifted its role from initially the western import. In the process of its domestication in China, the issue of controversial advertising has got more or less emphasis accordingly. Based on the theory of generations, this study hypothesized that difference exists of tolerance among five generation cohorts classified on the social environment and historical background in the period of their teenager. We take the framework of three elements of controversial ads, namely, product/service that consumers find offensive, executional styles that consumers find offensive and media characteristics that decide the extent of controversial ads. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey by a stratified quota sampling with a sample size of 1053. Although the study finds that the young and elder generation hold the same rule as the researchers Fam and Waller has found toward controversial ad that the young are more tolerant, this "open-conservative" classification is not correlated significantly with "media" element. The three elements of controversial ads are organically related to each other, which serves as the reason for tolerance difference among five generation cohorts.