“Kokufu”from the Perspective of Historical Context
日本历史上的"国风"概念,经历了一个漫长的演变过程。自最初的歌谣,到以"国文学"为核心的文学性的自觉,再转变为以日本为主体的文化性概念,接着转变为与中国相对立的、突出日本特性的民族概念,最后则转变为强调日本的优越性乃至绝对服从天皇和国家,为军国主义服务的"皇国臣民之道"。这样一个历史语境下的"国风"概念的变迁与转向,成为我们了解日本文学的内在脉络、理清日本文化的潜在线索、确定日本民族的思维模式、探索日本这一国家内涵的重要契机。与此同时,这一概念亦是在一个"中国·日本"的紧张关系下得以形成的,且带有一种通过自身与文明母国、或者说文化他者的中国相互竞争、相互对抗,由此来谋求自身的独立性与独特性的深层意象。The concept of"Kokufu"from the perspective of historical context experienced a period of change from folk songs to "waka"as the core of the literary concept,and then to the period which held the literary concept against China;afterwards,it came into touch with Japanese national consciousness,eventually connected with "kokutai"to emphasize Japan's superiority and state authority. This transformation of"kokufu"is one of the most important potential clues for us to recognize the internal thread of Japanese literature and to gain a clearer understanding of Japanese culture. It also offers a significant opportunity to ascertain the model of thought in Japan and to explore the connation of the country. Moreover,the concept of"kokufu"was formed amid tensions between China and Japan as well,which contain a deep intention on the part of Japan to compete and contest with its home country – China to seek independence and develop the uniqueness of its own culture.