The Arrangements of the Chime Bells of the Zhou Dynasty in Burials and in Performance Occasions
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
<正>目次一绪论二西周葬钟制度三东周葬钟制度四折曲钟与乐悬制度五结语一绪论乐悬制度是周代礼乐文明的重要内容,其核心即《周礼·春官·小胥》所载:"正乐悬之位,王宫悬,诸侯轩悬,卿大夫判悬,士特悬,辨其声。凡悬钟磬,半为堵,全为肆。"郑玄《注》:郑司农云:"宫悬四面悬,轩悬去其一面,判悬又去其一面,特悬又去其一面。四面象宫室四面有墙,故谓之宫悬。轩悬三面,其形曲,故《春秋传》曰:‘请曲悬繁缨以朝。’诸侯The researches of this paper revealed that the chime bells seen in the burials of the Zhou Dynasty were not arranged as their actual positions and assemblages in the performance occasions, but were selected and displayed according to the given burial institutions and the melodies and intervals of the music, and therefore the display of the chime bells in the burials were not the reappearance of their counterparts in the real life. The available archaeological materials showed that this burial institution emerged first in the late Western Zhou Dynasty, and developed into a regulated hierarchy in the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period： the feudal lords were accompanied by three arrays of chime bells in the graves, the highest-ranking nobles and senior ministers were accompanied by two arrays of chime bells and the other aristocrats and officials were accompanied by one array. However, no matter how many arrays, they were only arranged between two rack stands, and the common elites were seldom accompanied by musical bells. Since the mid Warring-States Period, this institution declined and finally vanished. The musical bell suspension rules recorded in Zhouli （Rites of Zhou） and Yili （Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial） must have really existed, but they were not demonstrated by the bell racks arranged in L-shaped plan in the graves. The use of the bell racks in L-shaped plan was closely related to the sizes of the grave spaces and the bells, which was a special displaying form of the chime bells as grave goods. This reflected from an aspect that the funeral views of the high-ranking nobles and officials were deeply influenced by the surrounding of the bronze and stone ritual vessels and instruments in the real life.