A Study of the Military Scribe in the Ming Dynasty
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
识字兵是明代军制管理中为解决基层文书运行问题而出现的职役。洪熙时已有各级武官私下甄选的情况,迟至弘治末该做法得到朝廷认可,并被纳入军事体制。这一转变,使得军中基层文书人员的安排可以绕开吏部考选而由武官直接选用。至此,由国家单独掌控的基层文书权力转由国家力量和武官群体共同控制。识字兵不仅管理军中册籍,还行使信息传递、赋役催征等职能,在文书运转的末端发挥着重要作用。但识字兵待遇低、名额少,这种节流政策导致其在实际工作中收取例费、贪腐舞弊,最终对明代军制运作的效能产生了危害。而且在实际运行中,为满足军中文书行政的需要,识字兵数量超出规定名额成为常态。Military scribe（shi zi bing）was a kind of military personnel who was in charge of seevetary works, of local institutions during the Ming dynasty. Initially, at the time of HonNxi reign military scribe were personally enlisted by military officers of respective levels of army. It was not until Emperor Hongzhi＇s late period that this means of enrolling military scribe was approved by the court and then was officially incorporated into the military system. This authorization was in favor of the military officers, who began to take charge of the enrollment and deployment of the military scribe without the intervention of the Ministry of Personnel. Consequently, the exclusive control of local secretariats by the court was divided into dualistic control by national power and army offices group. For one thing, the military scribe played an important role in the local document operation, which was manifested in their writings of various documents of the army and their services of communicating messages as well as calling for taxes and legal duties among commoners. For another, however, they eventually jeopardized effectiveness of the military operation of the Ming dynasty because of their blatant behaviors of corruption, which was associated with their low salaries and short of hands.