The Choice of Scientific Theory in the Expected Utility Model——A Kind of Division of Cognitive Labor in Science
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期望效用模型基于完全理性的自利科学家,建立科学选择的效用函数,分析社会因素影响下科学家在理论选择过程中的认识分工。不同模型间关系错综复杂。多标准动力模型通过科学家对理论的寻求可能性公式说明专业化锁定过程,统一模型利用期望效用公式分析专业化与多样性的互动机制。这些在认识论上与库恩的范式、劳丹的研究传统构成对比研究。期望效用模型可提供政策建议,同时也受到质疑。The expected utility models are established to analyze the division of cognition in the process of scien- tists＇ theory choice under the influence of social factors. The models are based on perfectly rational and self - inter- ested scientists and utility functions about scientific selection. There is intricate relationship among different mod- els. The multiple standards dynamic model is established by the likelihoods of pursuit function in the process of the- ory choice, and is used to explain the process of the lock - in of specialization. The unified model is used to ana- lyze the interaction mechanism between specialization and diversity with expected utility function. These constitute epistemologically a comparative study with the paradigm ted utility models can provide advice for policy making, of Kuhn and the research tradition of Laudan. The expec- and meanwhile they have also been questioned.