Zheng's Contest for Social Control of Ting, Zhang, Quan's Sea Area between the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty
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郑芝龙、郑成功海上集团是明中叶崛起的海上割据势力,他们顺应世界贸易市场形成的形势,建立起了自己的山五商金木水火土和海五商仁义礼智信十家商行,他们采购江南地区绫、丝、绉纱、药材、江西地区陶瓷,开展跨国贸易,海上贸易范围覆盖日本、朝鲜、琉球、菲律宾及中南半岛各国,形成较为强大的批发、贸易、收税、提供保护即令旗出租、客运等系列经营活动。他们还采购日本的盔甲、日本刀、火绳枪以及西方的枪、炮等来武装自己的军事力量,从而吞并或收编海商、海盗乃至官军力量,形成了自己强大的军事实力与经济实力,进而与明清两代王朝形成对垒,争夺对汀漳泉海域社会的控制权,明朝曾经组建海军,对抗倭寇和海盗,但遭遇到衣冠大族强烈的抵制,取得的效果非常有限;清朝则不惜"迁界",却给郑氏垄断当时的国际贸易提供了便利,郑氏还组织闽南地区往台湾的移民,也在台湾建立起了自己的粮食仓储,这些都在一定程度上壮大了郑氏的实力,也使双方的拉锯战延续了较长的时间。整个过程充分彰显了海洋社会经济力量之强劲以及明清王朝在治理海洋区域方面的努力与效果,此时官民的海洋力量间尚表现出相互的消耗和削弱状态。Zheng Zhilong and Zheng Chenggong are the maritime separatist forces since the middle of the Ming Dynasty. Conforming to the situation of the world trade market, they set up their own mountain area five business such as gold, wood, water, fire, land, and the sea area five business such as kindness , loyalty, manners, wisdom , trust, there were totally ten firms. They purchased silk, white silk, crepe, medicinal materials, ceramic from Jiangnan and Jiangxi region, to carry out cross-border trade, maritime trade covering Japan, Korea, Ryukyu, Philippines and Indochina Peninsula countries, and a more powerful wholesale, trade, tax, providing protection that flag rental, passenger and other series of business activities had been formed. They also purchased Japanese armor, Japanese knives, arquebuses and Western guns, etc. to arm their own military forces. They annexed or incorporated maritime merchants, pirates and even the military forces, forming their own strong military strength and economic strength, and further confronting the Ming and Qing Dynasties for the control of the waters of Ting, Zhang, Quan regions. The Ming Dynasty had set up the Navy to fight against the pirates, but encountered a strong boycott by the clans then, the effect was very limited. The Qing Dynasty carried out ＂relocation＂ policy, gave Zheng＇s monopoly at the time of international trade convenience. Zheng＇s also organized migrants from Fujian and established their own grain warehouses in Taiwan. All these strengthened Zheng＇s strength to a certain extent, and the tug of war between the two sides lasted for a long time. The whole process fully demonstrated the strength of the marine social and economic forces and the efforts and effects of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in the governance of the marine area, at this time between the official and the people of the marine forces still showed mutual consumption and weakening.