A Review on the Management of the Provincial Banner Land in Qing Dynasty
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
清代的直省八旗驻防点大多未进行“计丁授田”式的圈地，旗地总面积远小于畿辅与边疆地区。直省驻防旗地的主要类型包括马厂、教场、茔地等，八旗官兵份地所占比例极低。清初直省驻防旗地维持着原定用途，鲜有开发与经营。自乾隆年间起，由于八旗生计问题日益严峻，各地驻防当局为扩大财源，相继将所属旗地出租给民人垦种。旗地租金大部分被用于旗营内的各项公共事务，因数额有限，无法从根本上扭转八旗生计渐趋衰颓的趋势。民人承佃驻防旗地，增强了旗、民之间的日常和平往来。民人的长期实际占有与使用，也为民国初年直省驻防旗地平稳迅速地转化为民田奠定了基础。The enclosure and division of land did not occur in Garrisons. The Banner land area in provinces was far less than most place of the provincial Eight Banner the environs of capital and the frontier. The main types of the provincial Banner land included pasture, drill ground, graveyard, etc, the land owned by the bannermen only taken a small proportion. The provincial Banner land maintained the original purpose in Early Qing Dynasty. Since the Qianlong reign （1736 - 1795 ）, on account of the increasingly serious problem of Eight Banners livelihood, garrison authorities rented the Banner land to the civilian people in succession, to expand financial resources. Most of the rent of the Banner land was used in the public affairs, because of the limited amount, the rental income could not fundamentally reverse the situation that the problem of Eight Banners livelihood was gradually serious. The civilian people rented the provincial Banner land, increased the daily peaceful exchange between bannermen and civilian people. The civilian people＇s actual possession and use, provided a foundation for the transformation of the the provincial Banner land into the civilian land smoothly and rapidly in the early year of the Republic of China.