The Recommendation System and the Practice of Literati＇ s Offering Literary Gifts to High-ranking Officials in the Song Dynasty
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
宋代士人在登第、入仕之后,仍然要贽文求知,以希荐举。宋代的荐举制,特别是选人改官制,是宋代士人执贽干谒的制度背景。宋代官员执贽干谒的对象,是那些持有荐举权的高层官员。就下层官吏来说,监司、帅臣、郡守是他们最主要的投献对象。受目的的驱使,宋代官员往往在个人仕途中的关键节点展开投献活动。其投献文体,包罗丰富,不拘一格。宋代荐举制刺激了宋代士人的投贽干谒风尚,鼓舞、激励了许多有文学才华的士人,他们在入仕之后,创作出数量多、质量上乘的作品,并借助投献这种手段,使作品广为传播。同时,因着政坛上、文坛上当世显人的延誉、推荐,政治地位较低的作家,借此可以获得更多的政治上升空间,并能更快地融入主流文坛当中。以投献为纽带,文学和权力,紧密联系在一起。After a scholar passed the imperial examination and started to serve as an official in the Song Dynasty, he had to offer literary works as a gift to a high-ranking official, expecting to be recommended. The recommendation system of the Song Dynasty, and especially the system of shifting an official position through selection, formed the systematic background for the practice of literati＇ s offering literary works as a gift to a high official. Those who received literary gifts from the lower-ranking officials were the high-ranking officials who held the right of recommendation. The lower-ranking officials would give their literary gifts mainly to the circuit supervisors （监司）, military commissioners （ 帅臣）, and magistrates of prefectures （郡守）. For the purpose of gaining a higher position, ordinary officials often offered literary gifts at the key point of their personal official career. The literary works they sent as a gift were usually rich in content and varied in style. The recommendation system of the Song Dynasty stimulated the literati to offer literary gifts as a fashion, encouraged those scholars of literary talents to created a lot of high-quality literary works after they started their official career, and took advantage of the practice of offering literary gifts to spread and circulate their writings. At the same time, those writers of lower political status were able to gain more space for political promotion because of the commendation and recommendation of their contemporary celebrities in the poiitical and literary arena, and thus were able to merge themselves into the mainstream literary circles more quickly. With the offering and receiving literary gifts as the link, literature and power became closely connected with one another.