The Study of the Officers and Men of the Green Standard Army Enlisted in the Eight Banner Navy Troops
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
自康熙后期起,清廷将部分绿营官员、水手、船匠编入新设立的数支八旗水师,以弥补旗人缺乏水战技能的不足。编入八旗水师的绿营官兵并未改隶旗籍,只是临时服役于旗营,在俸饷、升迁等方面遭到歧视与差别对待,实际地位相当低下。八旗水师设立后,旗人并未熟练掌握驾船与水战技艺,水师的日常行动依赖于绿营官兵,但当局为缓解闲散旗人的生计问题,仍急于将绿营官兵裁汰。由于八旗官兵坐食钱粮、训练废弛,加之对绿营官兵未能有效利用,各支八旗水师始终处于管理混乱、战力低下的状态。Since the late Kangxi reign( 1662—1722),some officers,sailors and artisans of the Green Standard Army had been incorporated into the Eight Banner Naval troops. This was an extremely rare example of Green Standard Army personnel being transformed into the Eight Banners in the Qing Dynasty. The principle of governance was "Manchu First"and the government had maintained the Eight Banners exclusivity and independence,so the case represented a temporary fix. The officers and men of the Green Standard Army who served in the Eight Banner Navy troops temporarily,suffered various forms of discrimination,in areas such as the salaries and promotion. After the establishment of the Eight Banner Navy troops,the bannermen wasted salaries and did not master the skill of sailing warships or fighting on the sea. The daily activities of the navy relied on the officers and men of the Green Standard Army,but the government was still eager to eliminate them. The Eight Banner navy troops' situation demonstrated that the chief incentive for the establishment of the navy was not military strategy but alleviating the Eight Banners livelihood problem. Meanwhile,the inferior military capability of the naval force was predetermined.