Zhu Zhiquan's Comments on Zhu Xi's Idea of "Giving Priority to Sincerity in Personal Cultivation" and Its Similarities and Differences as Compared with Lu Wang's Idea——From the Perspective of Modern Studies on Zhu Xi
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朱熹继承程颐讲"涵养须用敬,进学则在致知",强调涵养与穷理相互贯通,并且认为涵养为穷理之本。然而,朱熹之后,宗朱派把涵养与穷理分别开来,只讲朱熹以穷理为主而讳言涵养,并以此区别于陆学;王阳明以为朱熹早年、中年主于穷理、晚年主于涵养而同于陆学,撰《朱子晚年定论》,同时又斥朱熹格物穷理是"析心与理而为二"。对此,清代朱子学家朱止泉著《朱子圣学考略》,通过对朱熹一生为学以居敬涵养为主的分析,建构朱熹的涵养论,强调朱熹"以主敬涵养为先","始之以涵养始,终之以涵养终",并且认为朱熹的涵养由于与穷理相互贯通,而不同于陆王,高于陆王,为孔孟正脉。这一观点,对于今天研究朱子学及其与陆王的异同,仍具有重要的参考价值。Zhu Xi inherited Cheng Yi＇s thoughts of ＂Self-cultivation based on sincerity, and academic pursuit based on ultimate knowledge＂, and emphasized the interconnection between self-cultivation and ＂principle＂ （or Li, a school of New- Confucianism）, featuring the former as the root for the latter. However, after Zhu Xi, the Zong-Zhu school separated self-cul- tivation from the ＂principle＂ by talking about Zhu Xi＇spursuit of the ＂principle＂ and hiding the discussions about self-cultiva- tion to show the difference from the Lu School Wang Yangming assumed that Zhu Xi was preoccupied with the ＂principle in his earlyyears and middle-aged years, while with self-cultivation in his later years, which resembled the experience of Lu Wang. He then wrote a book entitled Conclusive Remarks on Zhu Xi＇s Later Years, and rebuked Zhu Xi＇s materialistic pursuit of the ＂principle＂ is the act of ＂dividing heart and principle into two elements＂. In this regard, Zhu Zhiquan, a Zhu-School scholar in the Qing Dynasty, wrote a book entitled Review ofZhu Xi＇s Confucian Studies, which analyzed Zhu Xi＇s academic career that focused on learning and sincerity as the prioritized pursuit, and established the self-cultivation theory to emphasize Zhu Xi＇s proposition of ＂giving priority to sincerity in self-cuhivation＂ and ＂starting with self-cultivation and ending with it a- gain＂. He also thought that Zhu Xi＇s ideas about self-cultivation is interrelated ~mth the pursuit of the principle, thus different from and higher than Lu Wang, to be considered as the authentic heir of Confucius and Mensius. This perspective is of great importance to today＇s research on Zhu Xi＇s idea and its similarities and differences as compared with Lu Wang＇s idea.