Lianshui River Transportation and Boatmen Lineages in Hunan in the Qing Dynasty
清至民国湖南湘乡县涟水船户的家族文献，与地方志、《湖南省例成案》等官方文献互相印证，共同摹绘出内陆河道上以运输、捕鱼为生的船户历史。乾隆年问，湖南商贸繁荣，涟水上有六七千只倒划船，装载煤炭及客货，秘密走私硫磺。直至民国年间，涟水河道长期为陈氏、邓氏和潘氏宗族把持。三姓充当埠头，负责管理各埠船户，为官府转运漕粮，共同垄断河道的商旅运输和捕鱼权。三姓分别在宗族内部设立分房轮充运漕之役的机制，后演变为募役当差的应役方式。涟水运漕船户宗族与官方运漕制度之间的长期互动关系，为了解明清州县以下基层运漕机制与实际漕务运作办法提供了实例，也说明官方运漕制度为船户群体提供了组织化的制度背景。涟水船户建构宗族组织的历程，与其他地区船户的社会组织形态存在较大差异，展现出主动灵活的应对能力。船户等水上社群的经济能力、社会组织和文化水平，不可一概而论，需对其内部的阶层分化予以具体分析。The article examines the economic living and lineage construction of the boatmen on the Lianshui River in Hunan Province in the Qing Dynasty. In the Qianlong period （1736-1796） , approximately six to seven thousands boats rowed down the Lianshui River, transporting coal, grain, and freight, as well as smuggling sulfur mine secretly. The boatmen living by the aforementioned economic activities organized themselves into three lineages： the Chens, the Dengs, and the Pans. These lineages not only took responsibility for official transport of grain and controlling the dangerous boatmen, but also corporately imposed monopoly rights over transportation and fishing on the river. By a nuanced investigation into the relationship between the economic and social activities of the three boatmen lineages on the Lianshui River, the article will strengthen and refresh our comprehension of the economic life and social organization of the people living on the inland river system.