Population Distribution and Space Utilization of Kaifeng in the Northern Song Dynasty
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
作为北宋的都城,东京的城市规模与地方州县不是一个量级,其自身发展也存在着独特现象,呈现出中国古代城市发展进程中的另一种发展模式。北宋东京人口密度呈现出圈层式的分布特征,其内城的人口密度远远高于外城,症结在于各种城市功能的高度集中。东京内城不仅体现都城的行政功能,还附载着经济、军事、宗教、居住等其他配套功能,造成内城空间用地极其紧张,并带来一系列城市问题:都人的生活空间局促,生活成本高昂,舒适度受到影响,存在消防治安、环境污染、卫生疾疫等隐患。为了在有限空间里来承载更多的城市功能,北宋东京更加注重对城市空间的优化利用,通过空间的借用、延展及功能的多元化等方式充分挖掘城市空间的容纳效力,提高了城市空间的利用效率。私宅改为客邸也盘活了有限的房屋资源,缓解了城内的居住压力。对于东京来说,与其说是城郊都市化,毋宁说是另一种内聚式的发展模式,通过各种方式充分提高城内空间的利用效率。As the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty,the city scale of Kaifeng and the local state county was not an order of magnitude,and its own development also had a unique phenomenon,which was another development mode of China's ancient city development process. The Kaifeng population density showed a distribution of circle type. The inner city population density was far higher than outside the city,the crux of the problem lied in a variety of city function was highly concentrated. The city of Kaifeng not only carried the administrative function of capital,but also carried the economic,military,religious,residential and other supporting functions. The urban function was highly concentrated would inevitably result in the inner space was extremely tight. Subsequently,it also brought a series of urban problems: the cramped living space,the cost of living high,comfort affected,and the existence of the hidden dangers of fire security,environmental pollution,health epidemic diseases. In order to carry out more urban functions in the limited space,Kaifeng in the Northern Song Dynasty paid more attention to the optimization of urban space,through the use of space,extension and function of the diversity and other ways to fully tap the city space to accommodate the effect,improve the utilization efficiency of urban space. Private residences changed for hotels also activated the limited housing resources,to ease the pressure on the city living and thus eased the contradictions of urban function and space in a certain extent. For Kaifeng,saying with its was the urbanization of outskirts of a city,but another cohesive style development model,through a variety of ways to fully improve the utilization efficiency of the city space.