Contest between Principle and Implement:The Trend of Imperial Examination in Late Qing
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
晚清科举改革经历了从渐废到立停的发展演变,对科举积弊的批评此前多有记载,但通过对科举的改革往往能渡过难关,转危为安。晚清科举遭遇到的新形势在于重视"器物"文化的西学迅速进入中国,且器物之学能推动国家富强,免遭列强欺凌,因此,晚清的改革家们便聚集了更多的炮火于行之既久且多有积弊的科举制度,围绕重"器"还是重"道"的争锋便各有起伏,立停显然是重"器"论占据上风的表现,但是,将"道"与"器"作为二元对立的双方本身就是西学渐占上风的一个结果,中学论者在科举立停之后多指出其偏颇,但已无力挽回。科举由渐废到立停当是中学式微的一个直接产物,单单从科举本身寻求原因是不够的。The Imperial Examination reform had experienced from abolishing gradually to immediately stopping. There were many criticizing review on the Imperial Examination, but this system and its reform could ride out the storm, turned the corner many times. At that era western culture which emphasis on "artifacts" came to china rapidly, because western culture could promote the prosperity of the country and avoidbeing bullied, so many reformers gathered more gunfire to the Imperial Examination which was running long and had many malpractices. And there were combats up and down, immediately stopping Imperial Examination showed those pay attention to implement had more power, but regarded principle and implement as inverse was a result of western culture's stronger. Those opponents often pointed out its biased when Imperial Examination was abolition, but it had not been restored. Imperial Examination from abolishing gradually to immediately stopping was a direct product of Chinese culture decline. Seeking the reason from Imperial Examination itself is not enough.