Social Management System on Xiangjiang River during Ming and Qing Dynasties
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
明代河泊所对湘江河道社会的管理主要体现在向渔民征税,清前期,随着湖南商业经济的发展与米谷贸易的繁荣,地方官府加强对商品运输要道湘江的管理,着力于控制渔户和船户。乾隆年间湘江下游河道管理中的船行、牙行、埠头等管理中介制度是适应于河道社会的设计,引入地方商业机构与沿河宗族参与对船户和渔户的管理,保障河道的畅通和安全。明清湘江河道社会管理制度及其演变,展现了河道突显的交通运输功能在引起管理制度演变中的水域特征意义,说明水域管理制度需要与实际社会情形紧密契合才能得以落实,亦是全国不同水域管理制度的多元演变趋向的一个例证。由此可见,自明至清,王朝国家对不同水域社会的认识逐渐加深,并灵活运用社会机制不断强化水域管理。River inspector administration on the Xiangjiang River area in Ming Dynasty managed the fishermen society through taxing. In the early Qing Dynasty,with the prosperity of the commercial economy and grain trade in Hunan,local government strengthened the management of goods transportation through the Xiangjiang River,focusing on the control of fishermen and boatmen. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong,intermediary management system including the ship guild,the broker house,quay manager were adopted to the control of the lower reaches of the Xiangjiang River,which were adapted to the river society. Local business organizations and lineages near the river participated into the management of boatmen and fishermen,and kept the river a smooth and safe transport environment. From Ming to Qing Dynasty,the government on the different water areas gradually deepened and made flexibly use of social mechanism to strengthen the management on the waters area.