Economic Transformation of the Philippines in the 21st Century： Difficulties and Challenges
菲律宾是东亚最旱走上工业化道路的发展中国家，但在20世纪60年代之后，经济发展呈现出“拉美式”特点。1960午之后的近半个世纪，菲律宾经济结构的变化与其邻国相比显得十分缓慢。由于出口缺乏竞争力，国内市场狭窄，对工业尤其是制造业的发展形成制约。20世纪90年代，菲律宾已由该地区的第二工业国沦为最大的农业国。菲律宾经济发展过程中“去工业化”是由其特定的历史、政治与经济等多种复杂因素所铸就，其中美国干涉、政治体制的低效政局不稳是造成菲律宾经济发展滞后的重要原因。为了达到复兴制造业的目标，菲律宾政府制定了一条经济结构转换路线图。然而，对于当前菲律宾政府而言，要克服一系列政治经济困难实现经济转型，任重而道远。The Philippines is the first developing country of East Asia embarking on the road of industrialization, but after the 1960s, its economic development has had the characteristics of Latin America. For nearly half a century since 1960, the Philippine economic structure changes very slowly compared with its neighbors. Due to uncompetitive exports and small domestic market, the development of its industry, especially the manufacturing sector, is inhibited. In the 1990s, the Philippines had been reduced to the largest agricultural country and not the second largest industrialized country in the region any more. The ＂de-industrialization＂ in the process of the Philippine economic development results from unique historical, political and economic factors; the US interference, inefficient political system, and political instability are the important causes why the Philippine economic development has lagged behind. In order to revive the manufacturing industry, the Philippine government has formulated an economic structure transformation roadmap. However, for the current Philippine government, it still has a long way to go to overcome a number of political and economic difficulties so as to achieve economic transformation.