A Study of the Evolution of the Imperial Guard System in Ming Dynasty
- 国际关系学院/南洋研究院－已发表论文 
明代的京营制度从永乐年间的三大营制一变为景泰、成化时的团营制,二迁形成武宗时期的东西两官厅制,再到嘉靖年间设立戎政府。在此演变过程中,内外官虽然都曾参与到对京营的改革,但是由于他们不能解决权力政出多门、兵役占用、文官任职短暂等一系列的问题,京营制度逐渐走向了崩溃的边缘。The imperial guard system changed lots of times in Ming Dynasty, from Three-Ying system in Yongle period to Tuanying system in Jingtai and Chengua periods, from Two-Ying system in Wuzong period to Rong government in Jiajing period. In the process of evolution, the civil officials, military officers and eunuchs all participated in the reform of the system. However, they could not solve the problems of overlapping operations by different departments, military service encroached by power and wealth, taking office briefly and so on, so the imperial guard system gradually walked to the brink of collapse.