The Establishing of New County and the Disputes of Grain Tax: The Case of the Disputes about“Jieliang”in Counties of Tingzhou Prefecture,Fujian Province in the Mid-and-Late Ming Dynasty
- 马列主义－已发表论文 
明代,"按人户编佥,以田从人"的里甲编制原则,造成里甲户籍和田地坐落不必然在同一地域空间;兼之分设永定县时,实行"援图择户"的分割原则,造成永定和原属县上杭之间人户和土地的犬牙相错,田地和赋税的归属问题遂演变成县际之间的利益之争。原属县上杭坚持的"梅花分管"虽与明初所规定的"寄庄"制度不相符合,但是,代表国家利益的府道司院等上级部门,出于政治控制方面的考量,屡屡驳回永定方面的诉求,而支持上杭方面的主张。这说明:分设新县时,疆域和田粮的划分,虽然会考虑自然地理环境和国家的相关制度,但是,起主导作用的是政治控制。In Ming dynasty,the lijia system was organized according to two principles: the lijia was organized on the basis of the category of household and the cadastral records were compiled on the basis of the farmland's owners. In result,the household register and the farmland might belong to different counties. In addition,when Yongding County was established,the government practiced the principle of"selecting households by referring to the plots". These have caused jigsaw-like spatial distribution of the population and land between the original county,Shanghang,and the newly established county,Yongding. The issue of the jurisdiction of the farmland and the collecting of grain tax gradually turned into the conflicts between the two counties' economic interests. Shanghang County yamen insisted on"Meihua fen guan ",which indeed differed from the"Jizhuang"policy in the early Ming Dynasty. The superior bureaucracies,who represented the national interests and made decisions out of the need of political control,kept rejecting the appeals of the Yongding County while supporting the plans of Shanghang County. The essay shows that when territories and farmland were divided at the time of establishing a new county,the consideration of political control,rather than geographic environments and other related national policies,played a leading role.