The Two Significant Restructurings of Manufacturing Industry and Regional Evolution in the United States
- 经济学院－已发表论文 
美国制造业曾经历了两次重心迥异但又密切关联的重大调整。第一次调整始于20世纪70年代初,到90年代初方告一段落,主要内容是"去工业化"。在此过程中,东北部-中西部"冰雪带"和西部-南部"阳光带"此消彼长。90年代,制造业的发展比较平稳,但进入21世纪后,在中国等新兴经济体的冲击下,美国制造业就业再次下滑,引起整个社会的关注,由此出现以重振制造业为主的第二次调整,是为"再工业化"。这次调整在产业转型的同时,区域经济布局渐趋均衡。从"去工业化"到"再工业化",并不仅仅是制造业数量的变化和区位的移动,更重要的是,在此过程中,美国产业升级换代,区域经济结构优化,潜能得到了比较充分的释放,在美国的总体经济走向上留下了深深的印记。The manufacturing industry has experienced two significant restructurings in the United States, which are quite different and closely related to each other. The first restructuring which originated in the early 1970s and ended in the early 1990s is labelled as deindustrialization and caused the decline of snowbelt and rise of sunbelt. The manufacturing industry kept growing in the 1990s, whereas in the new century with the competition of China and other developing countries, the manufacturing employment declined again and has drawn the attention from the media, government and academia. In response to this condition, the reindustrialization to revitalize the American manufacturing became the high priority and caused the second restructuring, which shaped the new regional economic equilibrium. It is noteworthy that the shift from deindustrialization to reindustrialization is not only the change of manufacturing jobs and location,but the upgrading of industrial and regional structure, which has a tremendous influence on the American economy.