Implementing Innovative Teaching Is an Urgent Task for Chinese Universities
- 教研院－已发表论文 
开展大学创新教学是时代对我国高等教育的呼唤。基于个人的教学实践体会,发现传统的理论知识传输模式存在着诸多问题,而最突出问题就是理论脱离实际,无法激发学生学习兴趣。在探索改革传统教学方法过程中,发现传统教学模式在培养目标、课程设计、教学方法上均存在问题。为此,创新教学模式主张变学生‘知识接受者’角色为‘知识探索者’角色,人才培养重心从‘知识获得’变成‘能力培养’,教师任务重在设计恰当的问题情境,使学生能够展开问题探讨,掌握知识获得过程,理解知识的实质。Due to the profound influence of traditional education ideas and the examination-oriented education system in primary and secondary schools, university students usually learn with great passivity in China, so the graduates cannot satisfy present society's requirements effectively since they are lack of innovation consciousness and capability. Nowadays, the society needs universities to cultivate a large number of innovative talents which calls for universities to carry out innovative teaching and put away the traditional education model. Traditional education system holds a view of elite education, which emphasizes that universities should cultivate elites and impart them the most advanced knowledge and experience to enable the young generation directly to reach the peak of science, because university is the cradle of scientists. Chinese universities are deeply enslaved to this idea, so they must teach students the frontier knowledge that represents our human intellectual achievements, which is systematic and theoretical. Furthermore, this idea has a great impact on the form of the basic indicators of teaching quality evaluation, which regulates all universities' teaching behaviors, including both top universities and ordinary ones. Obviously, this idea is not suitable for the situation of mass higher education and contrary to the law of education that teaching contents must be adapted to the students' level of knowledge and ability, because the theoretical frontier knowledge are highly abstract and specialized which is far away from students' daily life and their knowledge level, so students feel very difficult to perceive the significance of the knowledge and understand them, consequently their enthusiasm for learning are discouraged. In addition, this kind of knowledge teaching is separated from the needs of our society for a great number of talents who are capable of employing practical skills. In order to avoid graduates' underemployment, application knowledge, rather than theoretical knowledge, should be paid much attention to. As for the learners' motivations, few of them are really determined to be scientists, while most of them study for their reality demand, that is, to be well employed. Frankly, many students study for diploma, which is the key for them to be well employed instead of pure knowledge.Another main reason that causes the students' passive learning is the very deep influence of examination-oriented education in primary and secondary schools. In order to get the competitive advantage in the national college entrance examination, students had to adopt the "excessive assignments tactic" in their secondary schools. This tactic makes students become the warehouses for knowledge and machines for examination, rather than positive learners. What's more, students are taught falsely that the college days mean four years' good playing time. After entering university, students' motivation and endeavor on learning are greatly degraded following with the loss of strict regulation and fierce competition, because the management is not so strict in university as in the middle school. Therefore, many students just muddle along during their four years' college life. To change this deviation, innovative teaching must be implemented in universities.Therefore, innovative teaching directs efforts to convert the traditional "cramming" teaching model into the "inquiry" teaching model so that it changes students from "receivers" to "explorers" of knowledge. Definitely, our education idea should be updated, focusing on the cultivation of students' capability, rather than the cramming of knowledge. In this condition, teachers should change their role from the giver into the organizer, guider, consultant, facilitator and evaluator of students' knowledge exploring. At the same time, students must learn actively. Only in this status, students' ability can be truly fostered. Obviously, it is impossible that the teaching contents be purely theoretical ones. It must be closely related with the practice. This relationship makes students truly participate in the learning process and experience the real problems and the significance of inquiry, and this is the real way to inspire students' enthusiasm for learning. Teachers should become reformers and be good at designing teaching situations to induce students to notice the existence of problems and then inspire them to explore. The key of innovative teaching is to research the combination of theory and reality. The "theory" refers to teachers' theoretical knowledge and "reality" refers to the needs of society and students' actual ability.