## 海面冰层对声波的反射和散射特性

Reflecting and scattering of acoustic wave from sea ices

##### 摘要

北极海面冰层复杂多变,其对声波的反射和散射严重影响冰下水声信道的传输特性,建立海面冰层的声波反射和散射模型对冰下水声通信研究具有重要意义.假设海; 面冰层为多层固体弹性介质且冰-水界面粗糙,满足微扰边界条件,导出声波从海水介质入射到海面冰层时相干反射系数满足的线性方程组.对相干反射系数随声波; 频率、掠射角、冰层厚度的变化进行数值分析.进一步引入根据散射声场功率谱密度计算散射系数的方法,改变掠射角,对冰层厚度、散射掠角对散射系数的影响进; 行研究. In order to build an efficient underwater acoustic sensor network in the Arctic Ocean environment, transmission characteristics of under-ice acoustic channels need comprehensive understanding. The reflecting and scattering of acoustic waves from sea ices have great influences on under-ice acoustic channels. Both topology and structure of sea surface ices are very complex and variable. The physical dimension, acoustic property and interface roughness of sea ices depend not only on local environment, but also on climate and formation time. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop a model of reflecting and scattering of acoustic waves from sea ices for investigating the sound propagation in the under-ice environment. Assuming that sea ices are a multi-layered elastic solid medium and the ice-water interface is rough and satisfies the boundary condition of perturbation, we develop a system of linear equations to solve the coherent reflection coefficient of the incident sound wave from water to sea ice. The coherent reflection coefficient is a function of the frequency of sound wave and incident grazing angle, and is numerically evaluated. The influences of ice thickness and ice-water interface roughness on the coherent reflection coefficient are analyzed. Furthermore, the method of calculating scattering coefficient by using the power spectrum density of the scattering field is introduced. The scattering coefficient as a function of the scattering grazing angle is numerically evaluated. The influences of ice thickness and ice-water interface roughness on scattering coefficient are analyzed. The results show that both the coherent reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient are dependent on the frequency of acoustic wave, ice thickness and grazing angle. The coherent reflection coefficient is close to 1.0 and the scattering coefficient is less than 0.01 when incident grazing angle is less than 15.. In addition, the frequency of acoustic wave and ice thickness have weak influences on them. However, the frequency of acoustic wave and ice thickness have significant influences on the coherent reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient when the incident grazing angle is big, say, greater than 30.. In general, the thicker the ice is, the smaller the coherent reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient are. The coherent reflection coefficient is less than 0.18 when the ice thickness is greater than 10.0 m and the frequency of acoustic waves is greater than 2 kHz. The ice-water interface roughness has great influences on both the coherent reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient. The rougher of the ice-water interface is, the smaller the coherent reflection coefficient is, and the bigger the scattering coefficient is.