Consumer Animosity,Self-efficacy and Willingness-to-visit:An Empirical Study on Young Outbound Tourism Market
- 管理学院－已发表论文 
国家间的争议和冲突通常会引起两国消费者的敌意情绪,并最终诉诸于消费者的抗议、抵制和拒绝购买来自敌意国的产品。旅游作为一种特殊而重要的产品形式,鲜有研究关注消费者敌意对旅游意愿的影响。该研究以216名中国青少年消费者为研究样本,引入自我效能作为中介变量和性别作为调节变量,探讨了消费者敌意对旅游意愿的影响及作用机制。结果表明:消费者敌意对中国青少年赴日旅游意愿具有显著的负向影响;自我效能在消费者敌意和旅游意愿的关系中起着中介作用;消费者敌意对自我效能的作用强度存在性别差异,男性青少年的消费者敌意对自我效能的影响程度更强。该研究对相关营销实践者、企业及政府部门在政策制定及危机公关时具有一定的启示。Disputes and conflicts between countries always result in sentiment of hostility among consumers in these countries,who will ultimately resort to consumer protests,boycotts,and resistance to purchases from the hostile nation. The sentiment of hostility among consumers,namely consumer animosity,is defined as"the remnants of antipathy related to previous or ongoing military,political,or economic event"and will influence"consumers' purchase behavior in the international marketplace"(see Klein et al.,1998,p. 90)". The impact of consumer animosity has been examined in many product categories,such as cars,laptops and so on,while few studies have involved in the place products or services,such as tourism. As a special and significant type of products/services,tourism plays an important role in national development and international exchanges. Tourism is,thus,becoming an increasingly popular in academic research topic. In cross-cultural consumer behavior research,however,few existing studies have focused on the impact of consumer animosity on willingness to visit the disliked country. The present research,therefore,aims to make up the insufficiencies found in the existing studies.In this article,based on a sample of 216 Chinese young consumers,we employed self-efficacy and gender as mediator and moderator respectively,to discuss the effect of consumer animosity on willingness to visit Japan. Firstly,we used AMOS 20.0 to conduct confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed good discriminant validity for the key four constructs of consumer animosity,selfefficacy,consumer gender and willingness- to- visit. Then we employed descriptive statistics analysis with SPSS 21 to test the means,standard deviations and correlations of main variables. Results indicated that consumer animosity was positively correlated with self-efficacy,consumer animosity was negatively correlated with willingness- to- visit,and self- efficacy was negatively correlated with willingness- to- visit as well. Furthermore,to test the hypotheses,hierarchical regression modeling was used. The results indicated that:(1) Chinese young consumer animosity negatively impacted on their willingness-to-visit Japan;(2) self-efficacy mediated the relationship between consumer animosity and willingness- to- visit;(3) consumer gender moderated the relationship of consumer animosity and selfefficacy,specifically,male consumer animosity has a greater influence on self-efficacy than female.Studying on Chinese young consumer animosity and their willingness to visit Japan,our research to some extent made up the insufficiencies of existing research. In this study,we introduced selfefficacy as mediator and gender as moderator,which can effectively describe the impact mechanism of consumer animosity on willingness- to- visit,and can comprehensively reflect the impact process and impact border of consumer animosity on willingness-to-visit. Additionally,the findings of present study have many implications for policy-making and crises containment public relations for related marketing practitioners,enterprises and government,especially for the transnational tourism enterprises and organizations. It is worth noting that the present study suffered from a number of limitations. For example,many measures adopted in our study were originally developed and used in the context of western culture,it is still questioned that these items are applicable to the context of Chinese culture. In previous studies these measures were mainly used to examine general consumer behavior,the appropriateness of these measures used on the behavior of young consumers requires future testing.