Analysis on Influential Factors of the Preference for Old-age Support among Elder People in Urban and Rural Areas of Xiamen
- 公共卫生－已发表论文 
目的研究城乡老年人养老意愿的影响因素,为优化配置养老资源和提高老年人生活质量提供依据。方法采用多阶段抽样方法对厦门市60岁以上常住老年人进行问卷; 调查,采用多分类logistic回归分析城乡老年人养老意愿影响因素。结果有效调查问卷城区652份、农村622份。城、乡老年人选择家庭养老、社区居; 家养老、机构养老和暂未考虑比例分别为67.5%、18.6%、12.7%、1.2%和71.1%、23.1%、4.7%、1.1%,差异有统计学意义(; P <0.05),且城乡老年人在文化程度、患慢性病、子女是否提供养老费、退休金以及距最近医疗单位的距离等方面分布差异也有统计学意义(P; <0.05)。以家庭养老为参照,城乡,年龄大于80岁者更倾向于机构养老(城、乡的OR(95% CI)分别为3.84(1.845; ~7.99)和3.64(1.07 ~12.47)),距最近医疗单位较远者倾向于社区居家养老(城、乡的OR(95% CI)分别为1.73(1.04; ~2.86)和2.12(1.31; ~3.42))。但城区老年人文化程度较高、退休金较多和子女有提供养老费者更愿意选择非家庭养老,而农村在婚老年人倾向于选择机构养老。结论城乡老年人; 养老意愿均以家庭养老为主,但农村老年人更倾向于社区居家养老,城区老年人更倾向于机构养老,城乡间的经济、文化差异是造成这种差异的主要原因。建议除强; 化家庭养老的功能外,应针对城乡差异合理配置城乡养老资源。Objective To study the influential factors about the preference for; old-age support among the urban and rural elder people,and provide; theoretical basis for optimum allocation of supporting resources along; with greater improvement of life quality for the aged. Methods Based on; the multi-stage sampling method,a survey was conducted among senior; residents older than 60 years old in Xiamen by means of questionnaire.; Chi-square test was used to compare the differences of basic information; between the elderly who lived in the urban and rural areas while; multinomial logistic regression played a role in analyzing the factors; which influenced the old people,s preference for old-age support.; Results 1274 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 652 from; urban and 622 from rural areas. The percentage of elderly people who; would like to live with family support, community-based support at; home,organization support or choice not-considered were 67. 5%,18.; 6%,12. 7% and 1. 2% in urban areas,and as for the countryside those were; 71. 1%,23. 1%,4. 7% and 1. 1%,which were statistically significant (P <; 0. 05). The differences between urban and rural old people were also; statistically significant on the aspects of their education levels,; condition of chronic diseases,pension costs from children,retirement; pension,distance from the nearest medical unit (P < 0. 05). To take; family support as reference,no matter in urban and rural areas,the; elderly older than 80 years old were more likely to choose organization; support;and people who lived far away from the nearest medical unit; would prefer community-based support at home. However,the urban old-aged; with higher education levels,more retirement pension and who got pension; from children were more likely to live without family support,while; rural old people who got married preferred organization support.; Conclusion Family support was the main choice for the elderly from both; urban and rural areas. However,the aging in countryside preferred; community-based support at home and urban old people tended to choose; organization support. The difference of local economy and culture; between urban and rural areas was the key reason. Therefore,apart from; strengthening the function of family support,pension resources should be; appropriately allocated aimed at those differences between urban and; rural areas.