Evolution of the Concept of "Police" in Public Law
- 法学院－已发表论文 
"警察"一词是公法上重要的基础性概念。在德国和日本,"警察"在公法上可以指代某种国家活动,但概念的外延在历史上发生了转变。当代德日的警察法理论分别确立了实质的警察概念与形式的警察概念、关于警察的"实定法上的概念"与"学问上的概念"的二元构造。警察概念在这两个国家的变迁史可谓殊途而同归。近代中国的公法学说受日本学说的影响,将警察视作某种统合性的国家活动;新中国的警察概念则展现出了泛政治化、身份化的状况,从而仅用来指代实定法上的"人民警察",警察概念的统合性功能就此缺失。由于统合性的警察概念有助于确定法律保留原则的适用范围,能够为判断行政裁量权收缩提供类型化标准,能够为行政权介入私法领域注入正当性要素,并有助于塑造宪法判断的基准,有必要在公法及公法学体系中重新引入统合性的警察概念。Although ＂police＂ is a fundamental concept in public law, scholars have not fully recog- nized this concept and the propositions deriving therefrom. In both Germany and Japan, ＂police＂ re- fers to a kind of governmental activities, but the extension of the concept had changed over history. The theories of police law in contemporary Germany and Japan have established respectively the sub- stantial concept and formal concept of police, as well as the positive legal concept and academic con- cept of police. The evolution of the concept of police in Germany and Japan has reached the same des- tination. The public law theory in early modern China was influenced by the Japanese doctrine and hence treated police as an integration of a kind of governmental activities. In New China, the concept of police has showed the tendency of pan-politicization and identification and, as a result, refers only to ＂people＇s police＂ in positive law, leading to the deficiency of the integrating function of the con- cept. Since the integrative concept of police contributes to ascertaining the scope of application of the principle of legal reservation, provides categorized criteria for the judgment of the shrink of administrative discretion, justifies the intervention into private law domain by administrative power, and shapes the standards of constitutional judgment, it is necessary to reintroduce it into the systems of public law and the theory thereof.