Rules of Technical Barriers to Trade in the “21st Century Trade Agreements”:Content, Features and Implications
技术性贸易壁垒正成为继边境措施后贸易自由化的主要障碍,因此成为"21世纪贸易协定"关注的重点议题。与TBT协定相比,TPP协定和绿色和平组织披露的TTIP草案对技术性壁垒规则做了重大发展,包括TBT-plus、监管一致性和监管合作等规则。鉴于TPP协定和TTIP草案对中国可能造成不利影响,中国宜主动根据上述规则对今后缔结的FTA和相关国内立法做出必要修改调整,包括明确和统一国际标准的含义、提高透明度要求、将产品附件作为FTA谈判的常设议题、适时将监管一致性规则全面纳入FTA中、修补监管合作规则等,同时应注意维持贸易自由化和监管自主权之间的平衡。Technical barriers to trade are becoming the main obstacles to trade liberalization after border measures, so they have been a key issue in the negotiations of the "21st century trade agreements". Compared with TBT Agreement, the TPP Agreement and TTIP draft leaked by the Greenpeace have made some important progress in the rules of technical barriers to trade, including TBT- plus, regulatory coherence and regulatory cooperation. Given the TPP Agreement and TTIP draft may impose adverse effects to China, China should make some necessary amendments and adjustments to its future FTAs and domestic laws based on the rules above, such as clarifying and unifying the definition of international standards,enhance the transparency requirements, making the product annex as a standing negotiation issue in the future FTAs, incorporating the regulatory coherence rules into the future FTAs comprehensively in the appropriate juncture, and improving the regulatory cooperation rules. In the meantime, China should also pay attention to preserving the balance between trade liberalization and regulatory autonomy.