“Utopia”“Inferior Principle”and the evaluation of imperial examination
- 2018年 
【中文摘要】“乌托邦”代表了人类一种固有的心理倾向，它源于人们对于现实世界的不满,更体现了人们超越自我、止于至善的追求。同样，一部科举考试史也可以被看作一场关于选官任能的“乌托邦”试验史。自唐代以来,为了达致“公平选才”的社会理想，围绕着“经义、诗赋、策论三者孰优孰劣”，科举制度既遭遇激烈的思想交锋,更经历了实践上的摇摆与反复。“科举乌托邦”启迪我们，正如需要在“乌托邦精神”与“乌托邦主义”之间保持必要的张カー样，考试制度常常是理想主义与现实主义冲突、妥协的结果。科举虽有诸多弊端,算不上是“最好”的选择,但却避免了“最坏”的结果。借由科举史上相关史实,可发现科举制度、科举评价中的“次劣原则”彰显了古人在此问题上的理性与现实关怀。 【Abstract】 “Utopia” represents an inherent human psychological tendency，it comes from peoples dissatisfaction with the real world，and moreover it reflects people's pursuit of transcendence and perfection. Throughout the ages，there has been an endless stream of human “utopian” thinking and practice in a wide range of fields including politics，society，science ，literature and architecture. Similarly，a history of the examination of the imperial examination can also be regarded as a “Utopian” experimental history of the election of officials. Since the Tang Dynasty，in order to reach the goal of “fair election”，around “the meaning of the classic，poem and fu，discourse on politics which one is better”，the system of imperial examination not only encountered fierce ideological confrontation，but also experienced practical swing and repetition.“imperial examination Utopia” enlightens us，just as we need to maintain the necessary tension between “Utopian spirit”，and “Utopian doctrine”，examination system is usually the result of conflict and compromise between idealism and realism. Although the imperial examination has many drawbacks，it is not the “best” choice，but avoids the “worst” result. Based on the relevant facts in the history of imperial examination，we can find that the “inferior principle” in imperial examination system and the evaluation of imperial examination reveals the institutional rationality and practical concern of the ancients on this issue.