Girls' Education and the Book on Women's Education in the Yuan Dynasty
【中文摘要】元代汉人、南人的女童教育差别不大，都是以女红为主的家庭教育,父母和外戚在其中发挥重要作用。部分望族和儒士之家的女童能够依照司马光《书仪》《朱子家礼》的要求,幼时习诗文诵读，七岁始读儒家经典，十岁左右始习女工，十二三岁始习歌舞等艺术。这些女童所读经史以朱子集注勘定的《论语》《孝经》《小学》为主,具有浓厚的理学色彩。受元代社会世俗化的影响，歌舞书算等技能教育受到普遍重视。与注重女红和辞章为中心的女童技能教育相比,元代女教育则较为缺乏 。 受时浓烈的贞节观念的影响，刘向《列女传 》、曹大家《女诫》和《礼记》等颇有影响，但少见有读《女孝经》《女论语》者。许熙载《女教》就是根据当时不重视女教的情況,结合两个女儿的教育,辑定经史中有关女教的文字而成的新女教书，对元末明初的女童教育产生了较大的影响。 【Abstract】 Most of girls in the Yuan Dynasty began to study needlework at home when they turned 10. Their parents and grandparents played an important role in this regard. Only some girls from noble families or families with Confucian scholars read Confucian books，such as “Analects of Confucius”，“Book of Filial Piety” and “Small Learning”.as required by “Book Instrument” and “Zhuzi Family Protocol”. The Confucian books mostly were variorum editions by Zhu Xi and displayed strong non-Confucianism. Due to the influence of social secularization, sinking, dancing，arithmetic and artistic skills were stressed. In the Yuan Dynasty，most families paid little attention to women' education. Some girls also read books on women's education such as “Biographies of Exemplary Women” ，“Women's Admonishments” and “Book of Rites”. The “Book on Women's Education”，written by Xu-Xizai was the result of his efforts to educate hisdaughters and were popular at the turn of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties.