Modeling seasonal and diurnal pCO(2) variations in the northern South China Sea
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
This paper describes the simulated temporal variation of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the northern South China Sea. We produced the simulations with a one-dimensional (1-D) coupled physical-biogeochemical model that had high-frequency, time-dependent atmospheric forcing and that were validated with field observations. We also examined the associated processes that modulate seawater pCO(2) at different time scales, from diurnal to seasonal, using a series of process-oriented experiments. At seasonal time scales, we revealed that the sea-air CO2 exchange was a primary process that modulated surface pCO(2) and exceeded the role of sea surface temperature (SST) even though the phase of the pCO(2) variation generally followed the strong seasonal cycle of SST. This was because sea-air CO2 exchange is a slow process and has an accumulative effect on surface water pCO(2) due to the buffering effect of the carbonate system once CO2 has dissolved in the seawater, which leads to a long equilibration time of CO2 between the atmosphere and seawater. The mixing effect on pCO(2) induced by total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon variations was, generally, positively correlated with the seasonal evolution of wind speed. Biological processes were the smallest contributors to pCO(2) variations at the seasonal scale because of the oligotrophic characteristic of the region. At diurnal time scales, the dominant pCO(2) controlling factor was mainly associated with the local physical and biological conditions. Temperature and wind-induced vertical mixing played major roles in pCO(2) when the winter heat flux and upward transport of low temperature and high pCO(2) in deep water were intensified. Phytoplankton blooms generally occur after a period of strong wind, as a result, biological metabolism becomes the most important pCO(2) regulator when the surface chlorophyll-a reached its highest level. Unlike that in the seasonal scale, the effect of sea-air CO2 exchange was minor at diurnal time scales due to the long equilibration time of CO2 between the atmosphere and seawater. We also found that the frequency of the model driving force was important in reproducing the sea surface pCO(2). The high frequency forcing was important in controlling the pCO(2) variation through the feedback effect to the corresponding physical and biogeochemical responses. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CitationJOURNAL OF MARINE SYSTEMS，2012,92（1）：30-41