“Rule of Rites” and the Traditional Rural Social Order
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
费孝通先生在《乡土中国》中将传统中国农村社会概括为“礼治社会”,体现了其深刻的学术洞察力。但是,从礼与法、基层社会与国家,以及地方习惯法与国家法等诸多层面的关系来看,所谓“礼治”并不意味着“无法”。而且,从历史发展的实际来看,完全自立于王朝法律统治之外,单纯依靠无法之“礼”来维持公共秩序的乡土社会也是根本不存在的。因此,如果我们把传统农村社会的一般特征由“礼治”改为“以礼治为主,礼法兼治”,也许更符合历史事实。With great academic insight, Mr. Fei Xiaotong defines the traditional rural society in China as “a society ruled by rites" in his Rural China. However, taking into consideration the relationship between rites and law, basic-level society and state, local customary law and national law, we understand that the so-called “rule of rites" does not mean “rule without law". Furthermore, judging from the reality of historical development, there has not been such a rural society as relying completely on “rites" to maintain its public order and independent of the rule of the dynastic law. Therefore, it may be closer to historical fact if the general characteristic of the traditional rural society is defined as “ruled by both rites and law but mainly by rites".