Lessons for Preservation of Kunqu Opera from Family Troupes in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
明清两代 ,家班主要从事昆曲演出 ,取得了很高的成就 ,不仅推动了昆曲发展 ,而且完善了我国传统戏曲的舞台艺术。明清家班的成功经验主要有三点 :(一 )集中了当时文艺领域的优秀人才 ,主人多才多艺 ,教习身怀绝技 ,家伶素质良好。这些来自不同阶层的艺术人才组成了一个职责清楚、目标一致的艺术团体 ;(二 )主人将戏曲当作乐生而不是谋生的手段 ,为家班提供了良好的创作环境 ;(三 )坚持不懈地追求艺术上的至高境界。这些经验对当前昆曲保护工作的借鉴意义是 :(一 )建设高素质、高效率的专业队伍 ;(二 )强化以艺术为上的观念 ;(三 )下大力气在知识阶层培养观众This paper argues that a good lesson can be learnt for the present task of preserving and developing the Kunqu opera from the experience of the Ming and Qing Dynasties family opera troupes. Then these were mainly engaged in performing the Kunqu opera, in which they became highly accomplished. They not only greatly contributed to the development of Kunqu but also did their bit in perfecting the performance art of traditional opera in general. The successful experience of these family opera troupes is three fold. Firstly, they brought together literary and art talents in forming an art circle with clear objectives which they pursued with great responsibility. Secondly, the proprietors regarded theirs as artistic instead of commercial ventures, thus cultivating a convivial ambiance facilitating creativity. Thirdly, they unremittingly pursued artic excellence. The lessons we could learn from their experience seem to be that we build up professional groups to protect Kunqu and that we raise intellectuals' consciousness of this art.