Taoist Ecological Ethics: Regarding Life as the Center
道教建立了"道"化生天地万物的宇宙论,强调天地自然万物与人同源、同根,并在此基础上提出"有形皆含道性",从而建构了作为道教生态伦理基础的普遍的生命平等观。道教还提出了"好生恶杀"的生态伦理规范,并以宗教的积善成仙与善恶报应的观念作为落实这一规范的基本保证。更重要的是,道教将生态伦理诉诸人的道德情感,要求人像孝敬父母那样尊重天地自然,以普遍的慈悲和怜悯之心善待动物和植物。这样,就形成了以生命为中心的道教生态伦理。Taoism claims a cosmology that "Dao" procreates the Universe, stresses that Human and Nature come from the same origin, and believes that "all visible thing possess Dao's essence." Consequently, Taoism holds the universal viewpoint on life equality as its fundamental Ecological Ethics. Taoism also brings forward ecological ethical norm of "loving life and abhorring killing" and, as the guarantee for carrying out this norm, Taoism advocates the religious idea of accumulating almsdeed for becoming immortal as well as good and evil retribution. More important, Taoism demands that people keep to ecological ethics with moral emotion, pay the same respect to Nature and parents, and treat animal and plant with mercy and pity, hence the life-centered Taoist ecological ethics comes into being.