On the Mentality of Scholars Exiled to Lingnan and the Chang of Circumstances before and after the Southward Retreat of the Southern Song Regime
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
远谪岭南 ,在唐宋两代都是朝廷处置获罪诸臣的严厉手段。然宋之贬臣 ,悲戚之感已较唐代稍轻。宋南渡以后 ,贬居岭南文人的心态更是有了显著的变化。在北宋元文人的眼中 ,岭南不仅是化外之境 ,同时也是险恶之境 ;而南渡文人则乐山乐水 ,在岭南新环境中较为超旷、乐观。不同的心态表现在文学创作中则是 :前者创作主体与客观环境往往不能融为一体 ,人与自然常呈现对抗、冲突的状态 ;后者以我观物 ,适我无非新 ,其笔下的岭南风物 ,色彩与形态要丰富得多。南渡前后贬居岭南文人心态上所发生的质性变化 ,不能只从文人胸襟、气度上去寻求 ,将南渡后岭南风俗、经济地位之改变与南迁文人群体心态联系起来 ,才更能说明问题Sending criminal ministers into exile in Lingnan was a severe punishment imposed under the Tang and Song Dynasties. To scholars such as Su Shi, Su Zhe, Qing Guan, Liu Zhi, Kong Pingzhong and others during the Northern Song Dynasty, Lingnan was an uncivilized as well as dangerous area. On the contrary, those like Hu Quan, Li Guang, Zhao Ding, Zheng Gangzhong and Hu Yin, political opponents of Prime Minister Qin Hui of the Southern Song Dynasty, were satisfied with nature and living conditions there. Their difference could also be found in their writings. As a result of their fear of natural conditions and social customs of Lingnan, the Northern Song scholars were not in a position to find harmony with nature and showed many conflicts in their works, while the Southern Song scholars demonstrated more openness and optimism, which found expression in their description of local scenery and customs. To know the change of these scholars' mentality, we should not only make judgment by their temperament or personal character, but also pay more attention to the changes they had experienced in natural conditions and social customs of Lingnan, the economic conditions and their group mentality.First of all, after the southward retreat of the Southern Song court, a lot of northern scholars, such as Zhu Dunru (1081—1159), Lv Benzhong (1084—1145), and Chen Yuyi (1090—1138) played an unusual role in promoting local culture and education, while they were influenced by local customs. Their mentality was thus changed.Secondly, with the economic development in Lingnan, and the enhanced connection between Lingnan and the outside, scholars around the area came to set a high value on Lingnan, which had become a safe and economically better place ever since the Song court retreat. To scholars exiled to Lingnan, it was an ever more comfortable area, where their mentality displayed made a world of difference in their writings.