Romanticism of Aesthetics and Romanticism of Politics
20世纪中国文艺理论体系中的浪漫主义主要有两大类别:以卢梭为代表的“美学的浪漫主义”和以高尔基为代表的“政治学的浪漫主义”。前者的内涵侧重于对人类文明及科技理性发展所带来的负值效应的忧虑、质疑与抗衡;后者则把浪漫主义当成隶属于“社会主义的现实主义”中的一种成分,是政治意识形态的工具.30年代后的中国,政治学的浪漫主义排斥、取代了美学的浪漫主义,在具体文艺实践中带来一系列令人困惑的现象。实质上,郭沫若与沈从文就分别代表了这两种浪漫主义在中国文学界的不同的命运。There were two major categories of Romantiteism in the theoretical system of 20th century Chinese literature and art, i. e. , a "romanticism of aesthetics" represented by Jean Jecques Rousseau, and a "romanticism of politics" represented by Maxim Gorky. The connotation of the former emphasized to worry about, to question and to resist the negative effect brought about from the development of human civilization and technological ration, while the latter takes romanticism as an element affiliated to "socialist realism" and an instrument of political idelolgy. Since 1930s, romanticism of politics in China has repeled romanticism of aesthetics and replace it, resulting in a series of perplexes in specific practice of literature and art. In fact, Guo Moruo and Shen Congwen represented respectively the different destinies of these two romanticisms in Chinese literature and art.