Beyond Absolutism and Relativism: On the Ultimate Concern of Putnam's Philosophy
超越绝对主义与相对主义的对立是普特南哲学的内在追求。普特南在追求这一目标的过程中 ,经历了两次重大的思想转变 ,即由科学实在论向内在实在论转变 ,再由内在实在论向自然实在论转变。每一次转变都是向生活实践的进一步皈依。内在实在论由于尚未真正摆脱形而上学实在论的思维方式 ,故显出自身学理上的不融贯。而自然实在论在生活实践的层面上纠正了传统二元式的思维方式 ,坚持了实在论的追求而又抛弃了实在论的形而上学的包袱 ,在绝对主义和相对主义之间寻得了一条中间道路The inner pursuit of Putnam's philosophy is to go beyond the dichotomy between absolutism and relativism. Putnam changed his way of thinking twice in seeking for this goal, i.e. from scientific realism to internal realism, and then from internal realism to natural realism. Each of these changes brought him closer to life and practice. Internal realism, due to influence from metaphysical realism, is incoherent in its theories; by contrast, natural realism through overcoming the traditional dualistic way of thinking on the level of life and practice and upholding the pursuit of realism without the burden of metaphysics, finds a middle way between absolutism and relativism.