Criticism on Logical Positivism's Picture of Science and its Proposition
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
逻辑实证主义认为，自然科学从可观察的经验出发，通过中立的观察、实验，并经过过辑推导，排除了任何人为的主观因素，因此获得的科学知识是与自然的本来面目相一致的，是客观真实的。因此，认为自然科学知识具有严格的客观性、逻辑操作性、经验可证实性。从这种科学观出发，实证主义主张，一切知识都应该像自然科学知识一样受到经验的证实，包括科学术语在内的一切术语，只有严格地按照感官观察定义，才具有合法性；认为只有可经验证实或分析的命题才是真实有意义的。本文通过对实证主义科学图景的分析、批判，指出其主张不具合法性。Logical positivism was a quite influential school in the west at the beginning of twentieth century. It advocated the verifiability criterion of meaning, according to which no statement is even meaningful unless either it is in principle possible to empirically verify it or else it is analytic. The positivism attempted to reduce all knowledge to scientific knowledge, all truths to empirical, scientific truths, and all methods of knowing to empirical, scientific methods. The positivism was based on its misreading of the picture of science that science was rigidly objective, rational and empirical. This article, trying to find ways to refute its idea, points out that it's illegitimate for the logical positivism to reduce all knowledge to sci- entific knowledge, all methods of knowing to purely empirical, scientific methods.