The decline of the medium[r]in Archaic Chinese and the origin and evolution of thesecond and third grade rimes in Middle Chinese
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
本文在肯定上古汉语有介母[r]的基础上,说明介音[r]在上古后期(公元0-600)的崩溃,是中古汉语的二等和三等韵的一个重要来源。介母[r]的发展主要受到声母和主要元音的影响。由于声母的不同,最先发生变化的是嘶音后的[r]。在官话方言中精组带[r]介音的字,由于[r]发音的改变而产生庄组声母。庄组声母中,主要元音属于前高的"内转",[r]表现为[i]而成为三等韵。在主要元音较后较低的"外转",后者的[r]虽然保持较久,但除了江摄在北方变成[u]以外。最后的命运是被省略掉。端组(齿音)后的[r]在演化时也是相对较快的。由于[l]跟齿音声母的结合极不稳定,它们很快便演变为以母和知组,和部分的精组、章组三等字。而~.nr 也演变为日母。唇音、牙(舌根)和喉音的[r],在上古后期也在各个韵摄中,逐步衰变为[l]和[i]。和庄组一样。也是"内外"有别。内转的[r]演化为[i]的速度较快,但仍有部分[r]到了宋代残留为[l]而形成"重纽"。主要元音较低较后的"外转",[r]演化较慢,到了明代以后’[r]在北方才转为[i],而在南方一般也是给省略。上面的例子也有一些例外,~.(辅音加介音 r)有时被省略为~.C 或~.r.造成了中古以后来母字数量的增加。而本身在上古是~.r 的来母,在中古后期一般都变成[l],只有在福建和湖南一些地方变成擦音[z]或[s]。至于在江西南部来母念[t]应该是近代的变化。~.nr 的结合不仅产生了泥母的三等(有人认为是娘母),也产生了日母。而日母的演化过程也是非常复杂的。This study is based on the assumption that[r] existed as a medium in Archaic Chinese, and explains how the decline of[r]at the end of the Archaic Chinese period(ca.AD 0-600) served as a main source of the second and third grade rimes.The development of the medium [r] is mainly influenced by the onsets and the main vowels. Because of the differences in the onsets,the first change that took place was the[r]be hind the sibilants.This[r]in the"Jing group onset"(精组)of the official language changed the onsets into the"Zhuang group"(庄组).For characters with the"Zhuang group"on- sets,those with front high vowels became the"inner rimes"(内转),and those with lower and back vowels belonged to the"outer rime"(外转).Although the [r] was kept longer the latter,but apart from the one in the"Jiang rime group"(江摄),its ultimate fate was a complete deletion. The[r]behind the"Duan group"(端组)also changed quite rapidly.Since the combi- nation of[l]with dental was very unstable,it evolved quickly into the"Yi"onset(以母) and"Zhi group"(知组).Some might have changed into"Jiang"and"Zhang"(章) groups,and"~*nr"also changed into the"Ri"(日母)onset. The glide [r] behind the labial,velar and glottal onsets of Archaic Chinese also changed in the different rime groups into [l] and [i] in Middle Chinese.Just like the case in the Zhuang group,the rate of change was different in the"inner"and"outer"groups.The [r] of the"inner group"evolved more quickly into [i],but there are still some remained as  until the Song Dynasty and became"repeated rime"(重纽).The [r] in the"outer"rimes evolved much slower,and after the Ming Dynasty,[r] finally changed into [i] in the North, and it is usually deleted in the South. There are still some exceptions to the above.~*Cr(Onset plus glide [r])are sometimes simpli- fied as [C] or [r],which caused an increase of syllables with"Lai"onset(来母).Lai onset sylla- bles with [r] as onsets in Archaic Chinese are changed to  in the later stage of Middle Chinese, except in some parts Fujian and Hunan,where they are pronounced as the fricatives[s] or [z]. The change into [t] in some part of Jiangxi into [t] should have been a recent change. The combination * nr generated not only the third grade rimes of the"Ni"onset( 母),but also the"Ri"onset.The evolution of the"Ri"onset is also very complicated.