The fall of Malacca and the Negotiations between China and Portugal
- 南海研究院-发表论文 
14世纪初,在明朝的支持下,满剌加取得独立,并迅速发展成为东南亚国际贸易的中心。然而,16世纪初葡萄牙殖民者侵入东南亚,占领了满剌加,导致东南亚国际形势发生剧变,从根本上动摇了以“朝贡”制度为基础的“华夷秩序”。面对这一空前的变局,明朝最高统治者愚昧无知,不了解世界大势,做出不合时宜的反应与决策;加之明朝国力式微,缺乏坚强的实力作后盾,在对葡交涉中软弱无力,其结果只能是坐视满剌加的灭亡,从此我国丧失了在东南亚原有的地位,东南亚逐步沦为西方的势力范围。In the early fourteenth century, Malacca had acquired independence under the Ming Dynasty抯 support, and had rapidly developed as the center of international trade in the Southeast Asia. However, in the early sixteenth century, it was Portuguese intrusion into Southeast Asia and occupation of Malacca which was a Chinese vassal that caused the upheaval of international situation in Southeast Asia and shook the 搊rder between China and the Barbarian?to its foundations. Facing this unprecedented violent change, the supreme rulers of the Ming Dynasty were benighted and did not understand the general situation in the world. Because they made the unpractical reactions and decisions and, what was more, the real strength of Ming Dynasty was falling off without powerful backing, they were so weak and incompetent in their negotiation with the Portuguese that they had no alternative but to sit by and watch Malacca going to its doom. From then on, China lost the position it originally possessed in Southeast Asia and Southeast Asia was gradually reduced to the West's sphere of influences.