Thrust and Practice of Super High-Yielding Rice Production in China
- 生命科学－已发表论文 
[中文文摘]追求水稻高产再高产一直是中国人的夙愿。经过半个世纪长期不懈的努力 ,育种技术和栽培方法不断开拓创新 ,中国的水稻单产增长了 237倍 ,居世界高产大国 ,总产增长 3 13倍 ,占世界总产的35 % ,并取得了许多辉煌的科技成就。其中杂交水稻育种技术居世界领先水平 ,水稻最高单产屡屡突破世界纪录。本文列举了中国对水稻超高产执着追求的实例 ,回顾了中国水稻产量的提高历程 ,综述了水稻产量的理论极限及提高水稻产量的育种、栽培途径及高新技术的应用 ,展望了中国稻作未来的发展。[英文文摘]The long-cherished wish of Chinese is pursuing high and higher-yielding of rice. With long-term effort and practice in half a century, there is a continuous upgrading and innovat ion in rice breeding technologies and cult-ivation techniques. China had become the world”s biggest rice producer and made many great recog nized achievements in rice science and technolog y. The average yield of rice has risen from 1890kg•hm- 2 in 1949 to 6366 kg•hm- 2 in 1998, increasing by 2.37 times, and the total output has risen from 4864.4 million tons in1949 to 20073.7 million tons in 1997, increasing by 3.13 times, accounting for 35% of the world"s total output . Among them, hybrid rice breeding technology is still keeping ahead in the world and the highest yield perhectare frequently breaks the world record. This paper has introduced the cases of strongly pursuing super highyielding of rice and retrospected to the course of the development of rice production in China. The authers have analysed the upper limited protentials of rice product ion and also review ed the approachs for increasing rice yield potentials based on breeding and planting and adoption of biotechnologies. The future prospect s of rice development in China are put forw ard in this paper.