Progress of the ecological security research
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
随着全球变化的不断加速,生态安全研究已成为国内外研究的热点。国外对生态安全的研究始于1970年代末,按照时间顺序和研究内容可以分为安全定义的扩展、环境变化与安全的经验性研究、环境变化与安全的综合性研究及环境变化与安全内在关系研究四个阶段,当前已进入环境变化和安全内在关系的探讨。我国生态安全研究始于1990年代,研究处于起步阶段,理论和实践研究尚待深入。生态安全应是指人与自然这一整体免受不利因素危害的存在状态及其保障条件,并使得系统的脆弱性不断得到改善。生态安全的本质有两个方面,一个是生态风险,另一个是生态脆弱性。生态安全的科学本质是通过脆弱性分析与评价,利用各种手段不断改善脆弱性,降低风险。生态安全与可持续发展是直接相关的,主要表现在以下方面:生态安全是可持续发展的基石,它是可持续发展追求的目标之一;生态安全与可持续发展具有内涵和目标的一致性;生态安全是对可持续发展概念的补充和完善。今后我国的生态安全研究应注意的四个方面是:概念与学科体系研讨、建立和完善;技术与方法;重点研究领域和重点研究区域;生态安全维护与生态环境管理调控With the accelerating of global change, ecological security becomes a research focus in the world. The paper reviews the historical research of ecological security in China and abroad. Research on ecological security began at the end of 70's of 20~(th) century. It could be divided into four stages according to the time order and research contents. Current research is focus on the internal relationship between environmental change and ecological security. Ecological security research started in China at the beginning of 1990's, the theoretical and practical research still need further deepening. Based on the review, a definition of ecological security, the scientific essence and the relationship of ecological security with sustainable development are proposed in this paper. Ecological security means that the existing state and ensuring conditions should prevent the human and nature as a whole system from the harm of disadvantage factors, and the system vulnerability could improve continuously. The scientific essence of ecological security including two aspects: one is ecological risk, another one is ecological vulnerability. Therefore, the scientific essence of ecological security requires using various measures to improve vulnerability continuously and reduce risk according to the tools of vulnerability analysis and risk assessment. Ecological security has a direct close relation with sustainable development, it could be considering in the following aspects: (1) ecological security is not only the foundation stone of sustainable development, but also one of the goals of sustainable development; (2) the connotation and aims of ecological security are consistent to that of sustainable development; (3) ecological security complements and perfects the concept of sustainable development. Four aspects which ecological security research in China should be strengthened are suggested in the paper, they are: the theoretical concept and practical application; the technology and methodology; the identification of research domain and area; the ecological security maintenance and management controlling.