Toxicity comparison of extracts from six terrestrial plants to larvae of Balanus albicostatus
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
对夹竹桃科(Apocynaceae)的红花夹竹桃(Nerium indicumMill.)和黄花夹竹桃(Thevetia peruvianaK.Schum.)、百合科(Liliaceae)的洋葱(Allium cepaL.)和大蒜(A.sativumL.)、楝科(Meliaceae)的苦楝(MeliaazedarachL.)和印楝(Azadirachta indicaA.Juss.)等6种陆生植物的不同溶剂提取物对白脊藤壶(BalanusalbicostatusPilsbry)无节幼体的毒杀作用进行了比较研究。结果表明,供试的楝科和夹竹桃科的4种植物提取物对白脊藤壶无节幼体的毒杀活性高于洋葱和大蒜;不同提取物的毒杀活性与植物的种类及提取部位(叶、花)以及活性成分的类型有关,用非极性有机溶剂提取的脂溶性提取物的毒杀活性高于极性溶剂提取物。处理12 h,0.3%印楝素乳油的乙酸乙酯及95%乙醇稀释液的毒杀活性最高,LC100仅为0.33和3.01 g.mL-1,可作为防治海洋污损生物的植物资源进行进一步的开发利用。The toxicity activities of different solvent extracts from six terrestrial plants including Nerium indicum Mill.and Thevetia peruviana K.Schum.belonging to Apocynaceae,Allium cepa L.and A.sativum L.belonging to Liliaceae,Melia azedarach L.and Azadirachta indica A.Juss.belonging to Meliaceae to larvae of Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry were examined.The results showed that the toxicity activities of different solvent extracts from the four species belonging to Meliaceae and Apocynaceae were higher than that of A.cepa and A.sativum.The toxicity activities of these extracts to larvae of B.albicostatus were related to plant species,sampling tissue(leaf or flower) and type of active constituents,and the toxicity of fat-soluble extracts with non-polar organic solvents was higher than that of polar solvent extracts.The toxicity activities of ethyl acetate and 95% ethanol diluents of 0.3% azadirachtin emulsion were the highest for treating 12 h and LC100 was only about 0.33 and 3.01 g·mL-1 respectively, therefore,0.3% azadirachtin emulsion can be further developed as the plant resources for antifouling.