Competition,Measures Usage and Organize Performance
- 管理学院－已发表论文 
本文通过对158家中国企业的问卷调查,研究了市场竞争程度对企业内部管理中评价指标采用程度的影响,以及企业内部管理中评价指标采用程度与公司业绩的关系,对我国企业采用评价指标提出了很有意义的启示。研究发现,市场竞争程度与企业对财务指标的采用程度相关,而与对非财务指标的采用程度不相关。但是有趣的是,增加财务指标的采用并不能带来公司业绩的增长,而增加非财务指标的采用才能带来公司业绩的增长。特别是,越是在竞争激烈的情况下,增加财务指标的采用,会带来较差的业绩后果。Even from 1980's,the tranditional performance evaluation system which is based on financial measures has been widely doubted.The main idea about improving it is u- sing comprehensive performance evaluation system by adding nonfinancial measures. Following the focus on the use of financial and non-financial measures in the West in the early 1990s,the Chinese government (Ministry of Finance,State Economic and Trade Com- mission(SETC).Ministry of Personnel and State Development Planning Commission(SD- P(?)) jointly introduced"Rules for State-owned Assets Performance Measurement"and"De- tailed Rules for State-owned Assets Performance Measurement"in 1999.These required the evaluating SOEs using a much wider range of measures and in 2002,these were again re- viewed to include 28 measures in the form of a scorecard.This scorecard included financial and non-financial measures. However,does environment influence the firm's behavior when they choose financial or nonfinancial measures,as well as the consequences of firm's using different kinds of perform- ance evaluation system,especially in China where the background is very typical compared with western countries?By a large scale survey in 158 Chinese companies,this study tries to find some evidence using competition degree as the proxy of environment. A lot of researchers have ever tried to measure competition intensity.The basic method is survey,using questionnaire with several relative questions.The point can be gathered or average of the scores of those questions.The questions of Mia and Clarke(1998)are used for reference in this paper.The point of COMP is gathered by the scores of 7 questions.The us- age and the recognition of indicators are measured according to different perspectives.Consid- ering China's situation,especially Rules for State-owned Assets Performance Measurement, published in 1999 and revised in 2002,9 perspectives of questions about measures are in- volved in this paper.A self-rank score method is used in this study to measure firm's per- formance.The respondents were asked to rank their own position in every perspective com- pare other companies in the same industry in past 3 years.The score of performance of enter- prises comes from collection of every perspective. According to contingency theory,there is no perfect evaluation system for every firm. Different kind of firms should use different kinds of evaluation system.Empirical researches test contingency theory including two levels.The first level is to prove that firm's behavior will differ because of contingency factors.The second level is to prove that firm's performance will be different because of contingency factors.In another word,If the usage of measures misfit their contingency factors,the performance would go worse.This study does research on both level. First,we analyse the influence of competition degree to measure's usage,The evidence suggests that the competition degree is significant relative with usage of comprehensive meas- ures.Furthermore.it is significant relative with usage of financial measures,but there is no relation with those of non-financial measures.Second,we get very interesting results after analysing the relation between performance and measure's usage.We find that increasing us- age of financial measures might not lead to better performance even though firms will use fi- nancial measures more when encountering more competition.Instead,increasing usage of non-financial measures might lead to better performance while firms will not use them more when encountering more competition.Especially,we find that companies in more competitive environment are more likely to demonstrate worse performance when making greater use of fi- nancial measures.