On the Ration System of Handicraft Industry Operated by Government in the Early Qing Dynasty
- 人文学院－已发表论文 
【中文摘要】清前期官手工业管理继承了前代产量和人员定额、计功、以匠管匠、工匠技术等级、颁样、物勒工名、检查、奖惩等制度,并改善用工制度,重视官员任用,为定额制的实施创造了更好的环境,理应使定额制发挥较前代更好的作用,但生产过程仍存在产品质量等方面的问题,其原因主要是定额制未得到严格执行,同时官手工业的经营方式发生了一些变化,给定额制的实施带来一些困难。【英文摘要】Handicraft industry operated by government serves ration administration as guiding thought,carries out the systems of turnout and personnel ration,calculating workload per unit time,administering craftsman by craftsman,technology grade,providing sample,taging name on product,inspecting,rewards and punishment and so on.These systems are not initiated in the early Qing Dynasty,but inherited from previous eras,and the improvement of craftsman using system and the adjustment of appointing official system provid ration system with favorable environment. These factors should have ensured the ration system to exert better effect than formerera, but there are still some problems in product quality and so on. The main reason is that the ration system is not carried out strictly, and that the changes in management of handicraft industry operated by government caused difficulties in implementingn the ration system.