Wastewater Treatment Process Based on Microbial Electrochemistry: Opportunities and Challenges
- 2017年第23卷 
微生物电化学技术（Microbial Electrochemical Technology, MET）最为一种新型水处理工艺，因其具有污染物同步去除和能源化的特点受到广泛重视. 近年来微生物电化学系统（Microbial Electrochemical System, MES）的研究者在其电子传递机理、功能菌群分析、系统功能拓展、低成本材料开发和大型系统构建等方面取得大量进展. 然而该技术作为污水处理工艺的可行性却始终存在争议. 本文从应用角度将MET工艺与现有厌氧、好氧工艺进行对比，分析各工艺在有机物降解和能量回收方面的特点，有助于找到MET工艺在水处理领域中的适宜定位. 相对厌氧与好氧工艺，MET工艺具有低污泥产率，运行过程能量自给以及电流加速污染物去除等优势特征，但在推进MET工艺的实用化进程中仍需进一步简化其系统结构、降低构筑成本、提高运行稳定性，并应基于MET的运行特征确定其适宜的应用范围以发挥MET工艺的技术优势.Microbial electrochemical technology (MET) has drawn great attention for its characteristics of synergetic pollution removal and energy recovery of wastewater. In the last decade, significant developments in microbial electrochemical system (MES) have been made in the aspects of electron transfer mechanism, microbial community analysis, function expansion, low-cost electrode materials and scaled-up constructions. However, the feasibility of MET as a wastewater treatment process has been controversial so far. In this paper, the characteristics of MET were systematically compared with anaerobic and aerobic processes from the application point of view in the aspects of pollution degradation and energy recovery processes. The MET-based water treatment technology revealed some comparative advantages for applications because of its low sludge yield rate, energy self-sufficiency operation and current-assisted pollutant removal capability. The better understanding of these advantages would be helpful in finding the proper application scope of MET for wastewater treatment. However, in the process of advancing the practical application of MET, challenges remained require more effort such as the construction simplification, development of low-cost material and maintenance of electrode performance in long-term operation. More considerations were also needed to determine the appropriate application position of MET in a series of water treatment units to overcome shortcomings and take advantages of technical advances.