A Study of Self-written Epitaphs in the Song Dynasty
【中文摘要】据存世资料统计,宋代自撰墓志铭共有33方,现存计有18方。自撰墓志铭虽非宋代墓志铭撰写的主流,但在两宋时期不绝如缕。自撰墓志者有的曾身居高位,有的一直宦海低迷、困顿下僚,还有的终生居于草野。这些墓志铭,有的形式自由、内容简单,也有的中规中矩,与他撰墓志无异。撰者之所以直面自己的生命,或借自撰墓志表达一种超脱生死的豁达境界,或是理想与现实反差下的牢骚之语,抑或是特殊的政治环境下墓主的自我释放,乃至表达易代之后“遗民”的心态等,呈现出多样化的面貌。此类文献的历史书写方式颇耐人寻味,值得深究。 【Abstract】Historical records indicate that there are 33 self-written epitaphs in the Song Dynasty, including 18 surviving ones. Although they were not the norm in the Song Dynasty, it existed all the time. People wrote an epitaph for themselves included high-ranking officials, lowly bureaucrats, and commoners. The varied reasons why they wrote an epitaph for themselves included a desire to take stock of their life experience, a desire to rise above the matters of life or death, a desire to vent frustration over the discrepancy between ideals and reality, a desire to express their emotions in a particular political environment, and a desire to express longing for the previous dynasty. This interesting form of historical writing has both explicit manifestations and implicit connotations worth further study.