Electrogenerated chemiluminescence based on tris(2,2 '-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) with hydroxyl carboxylic acid
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Upon the electrochemical oxidation of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)] and hydroxyl carboxylic acids, for instance, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, and D-gluconic acid, bright electrochemiluminescences (ECLs) were observed. Different luminescent reactions were presented depending on the applied potential. The light emission was mainly caused by the reaction between alkoxide radical ion and Ru(bpy)(3)(3+) below the potential +1.80 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The luminescence intensity obviously increased because of the more complex reaction process. The luminescence wavelength of 608 nm, which could be found either at higher potential than +1.80 V or in the potential range from +1.30 to +1.80 V, confirmed that ECL was caused by Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)*. The factors which affect the determination and HPLC separation of the four acids were also investigated. (C) 1998 Academic Press.