Non-Conviction-Based Confiscation in Europe: Bringing the Picture Together
Jon Petter Rui
- 2017年第一卷 
【中文摘要】无定罪没收指的是不以任何刑事定罪为前提的一种没收制度。在欧洲，无定罪没收规则的 产生背景是对获致有罪判决困难性的回应。以立法模式和目的基准，无定罪没收可以分为刑法模式、民 法模式和警察法模式三种类型。妥当的政策导向方法并不会损害那些应当适用于（根据恩格尔标准被认 为是）“刑事”案件的公约权利。在欧洲多层级的人权体系背景下，无定罪没收是否以及如何受非刑事性 人权保障机制的限制，在不同法律框架中存在差异。目前，在欧盟层面，议会正致力于号召成员国制定 无定罪没收的规则并扩张其适用范围。在国内法层面，应当在刑事法的框架之内，引入一种以恢复原状 为目标的、普通法模式的、对物程序式的、非刑事性的无定罪没收制度。 【Abstract】NCBC (non-conviction-based confiscation) refers to a confiscation method that does not require any criminal conviction. In Europe, it was developed in response to the difficulty to obtain a criminal conviction. According to different legal disciplines and purposes, the constructions of NCBC can be classified into three models: the criminal law model, the civil law model and the police law model. The policy-oriented approach applied in an appropriate manner will not lead to breaches of ECHR rights, which apply in cases considered “criminal” according to the Engel criteria. In the context of the multilevel human rights system in Europe, it is different among different legal regimes in terms of whether and how NCBC measures are limited by non-criminal human rights. At present, at the EU level, the Parliament advocates the establishment of NCBC and its extended use in the Member States. At national levels, it makes sense to create a non-criminal model for confiscations in criminal justice system designed to re-establish the status quo ante, which takes the form of an in rem procedure against property, similar to the common law model.