Education Intendants and Provincial Examinations during the Ming Dynasty
- 2017年 
【中文摘要】正统元年明朝创办了督学制度,但也一直存在着将此新设的提学官视为“冗官”的人士。因此,弘治年间的提学官以及其周边人士试图创造出更合适的提学官像:彭韶期待作为“名辈”的提学官能够在万物一体的思想中进行督学活动,杨一清更重视提学官拥有司法官的一面,要求他们公正地行使权力。随着提学官自我认识的成熟,他们在地方官僚社会中的地位也逐渐提高,并积极参与到各省的乡试活动中。从嘉靖初期以后,提学官与一部分外帘官同样得以代作乡试程文,并根据与自己思想倾向的异同选择乡试考官。 【Abstract】In 1436, the first year of the Zhengtong reign, the Ming government established the education intendant system, but from the beginning, there was criticism that this new official position was redundant. Therefore, during the Hongzhi reign, some education intendants and their collaborators attempted to create a more suitable image for this official position. Peng Shao argued that this official position should be assumed by elite literati and expected them to act on the viewpoint that all creations were one. On the other hand, Yang Yiqing paid attention to their judicature and urged them to exercise this power rightly. After all trials and errors, the position in local bureaucracy gradually improved and some local officials wanted education intendants to participate in the provincial examination process. From the early Jiajing reign, education intendants started composing model answers in the same manner as some of external aides did, even though they had been prohibited from interfering in the commissioning of internal aides, and controlled the staffing of provincial examiners in an attempt to assemble literati who were philosophically or politically like-minded.